You will do a page about a volcanoe or a volcanic structure. Choose from one of the following or pick another one that you discover. You will write in your own words at least 3 paragraphs about this volcano and show at least 5 pictures of it. It would be good to label each picture!! You will eventually present your page to the class.

grading rubric:
Make sure you have:
Grading Rubric.....possibe
points
Copy 3-6 graphics and 2 pages of understandable information. from the internet.
Put copied information on the bottom and your own writing with pictures on the top.
Label the copied information "Copied from the internet" Site the website where you got it.
Study the material you copied and prepare yourself to summarize what you found out.
Type 3 paragraphs in your own words using only words you understand...do not cut and paste!

*

copy and paste info ..10
organization ..............5
3 paragraphs............10

Total points..............25

Instructions:

After deciding what volcano you will be doing click on "New Page" and title the page the name of your volcano. You will do your work on this page. You can search for "currently erupting volcanoes" on the internet or choose from one of the following. Please do not pick the same volcano that someone else has already picked.

some examples:

Supervolcanoes

Main article: SupervolcanoSee also: List of largest volcanic eruptions
A supervolcano usually has a large caldera and can produce devastation on an enormous, sometimes continental, scale. Such volcanoes are able to severely cool global temperatures for many years after the eruption due to the huge volumes of sulfur and ash released into the atmosphere. They are the most dangerous type of volcano. Examples include: Yellowstone Caldera in Yellowstone National Park and Valles Caldera in New Mexico (both western United States); Lake Taupo in New Zealand; Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia; Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania; and Krakatoa near Java and Sumatra, Indonesia. Because of the enormous area they may cover, supervolcanoes are hard to identify centuries after an eruption. Similarly, large igneous provinces are also considered supervolcanoes because of the vast amount of basalt lava erupted (even though the lava flow is non-explosive).

Submarine volcanoes

Main article: Submarine volcano
Submarine volcanoes are common features of the ocean floor. In shallow water, active volcanoes disclose their presence by blasting steam and rocky debris high above the ocean's surface. In the ocean's deep, the tremendous weight of the water above prevents the explosive release of steam and gases; however, they can be detected by hydrophones and discoloration of water because of volcanic gases. Pillow lava is a common eruptive product of submarine volcanoes and is characterized by thick sequences of discontinuous pillow-shaped masses which form under water. Even large submarine eruptions may not disturb the ocean surface due to the rapid cooling effect and increased buoyancy of water (as compared to air) which often causes volcanic vents to form steep pillars on the ocean floor. Hydrothermal vents are common near these volcanoes, andsome support peculiar ecosystems based on dissolved minerals. Over time, the formations created by submarine volcanoes may become so large that they break the ocean surface as new islands or floating pumice rafts.

Subglacial volcanoes

Main article: Subglacial volcano
Subglacial volcanoes develop underneath icecaps. They are made up of flat lava which flows at the top of extensive pillow lavas and palagonite. When the icecap melts, the lava on top collapses, leaving a flat-topped mountain. These volcanoes are also called table mountains, tuyas, or (uncommonly) mobergs. Very good examples of this type of volcano can be seen in Iceland, however, there are also tuyas in British Columbia. The origin of the term comes from Tuya Butte, which is one of the several tuyas in the area of the Tuya River and Tuya Range in northern British Columbia. Tuya Butte was the first such landform analyzed and so its name has entered the geological literature for this kind of volcanic formation. The Tuya Mountains Provincial Park was recently established to protect this unusual landscape, which lies north of Tuya Lake and south of theJennings River near the boundary with the Yukon Territory.

Mud volcanoes

Main article: Mud volcano
Mud volcanoes or mud domes are formations created by geo-excreted liquids and gases, although there are several processes which may cause such activity. The largest structures are 10 kilometers in diameter and reach 700 meters high.

Stratovolcanoes


Volcanic features


external image 220px-Lakagigar_Iceland_2004-07-01.jpg

Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84.

external image 220px-Skjaldbreidur_Herbst_2004.jpg

Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"

The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit; however, this describes just one of the many types of volcano. The features of volcanoes are much more complicated and their structure and behavior depends on a number of factors. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have landscape features such as massiveplateaus. Vents that issue volcanic material (including lava and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puʻu ʻŌʻō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea. Other types of volcano include cryovolcanoes (or ice volcanoes), particularly on some moons of Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune; and mud volcanoes, which are formations often not associated with known magmatic activity. Active mud volcanoes tend to involve temperatures much lower than those of igneous volcanoes except when the mud volcano is actually a vent of an igneous volcano.

Fissure vents


Main article: Fissure vent
Volcanic fissure vents are flat, linear cracks through which lava emerges.

Shield volcanoes


Main article: Shield volcano
Shield volcanoes, so named for their broad, shield-like profiles, are formed by the eruption of low-viscosity lava that can flow a great distance from a vent. They generally do not explode catastrophically. Since low-viscosity magma is typically low in silica, shield volcanoes are more common in oceanic than continental settings. The Hawaiian volcanic chain is a series of shield cones, and they are common in Iceland, as well.

Lava domes


Main article: Lava dome
Lava domes are built by slow eruptions of highly viscous lava. They are sometimes formed within the crater of a previous volcanic eruption, as in the case of Mount Saint Helens, but can also form independently, as in the case ofLassen Peak. Like stratovolcanoes, they can produce violent, explosive eruptions, but their lava generally does not flow far from the originating vent.

Cryptodomes


Cryptodomes are formed when viscous lava is forced upward causing the surface to bulge. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was an example; lava beneath the surface of the mountain created an upward bulge which slid down the north side of the mountain.

Volcanic cones (cinder cones)


Main articles: volcanic cone and Cinder cone
external image 220px-Green_Izalco_Volcano.JPG

Izalco (volcano) located in theCordillera de Apaneca volcanic range complex in El Salvador, only a few generations old, is the youngest and most well known cone volcano. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958 earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".

Volcanic cones or cinder cones result from eruptions of mostly small pieces of scoria and pyroclastics (both resemble cinders, hence the name of this volcano type) that build up around the vent. These can be relatively short-lived eruptions that produce a cone-shaped hill perhaps 30 to 400 meters high. Most cinder cones erupt only once. Cinder cones may form as flank vents on larger volcanoes, or occur on their own. Parícutin in Mexico and Sunset Craterin Arizona are examples of cinder cones. In New Mexico, Caja del Rio is a volcanic field of over 60 cinder cones.

Based on satellite images it was suggested that cinder cones might occur on other terrestrial bodies in the Solar system too; on the surface of Mars and the Moon.[4][5][6][7]

Stratovolcanoes (composite volcanoes)


external image 300px-Volcano_scheme.svg.png

Cross-section through a stratovolcano(vertical scale is exaggerated):
1. Large magma chamber
2. Bedrock
3. Conduit (pipe)
4. Base
5. Sill
6. Dike
7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano
8. Flank
9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano
10. Throat
11. Parasitic cone
12. Lava flow
13. Vent
14. Crater
15. Ash cloud

Main article: Stratovolcano
Stratovolcanoes or composite volcanoes are tall conical mountains composed of lava flows and other ejecta in alternate layers, the strata that gives rise to the name. Stratovolcanoes are also known as composite volcanoes because they are created from multiple structures during different kinds of eruptions. Strato/composite volcanoes are made of cinders, ash, and lava. Cinders and ash pile on top of each other, lava flows on top of the ash, where it cools and hardens, and then the process repeats. Classic examples include Mt. Fuji in Japan, Mayon Volcano in the Philippines, and Mount Vesuvius and Stromboli in Italy.

Throughout recorded history, ash produced by the explosive eruption of stratovolcanoes has posed the greatest volcanic hazard to civilizations. Not only do stratovolcanoes have greater pressure build up from the underlying lava flow than shield volcanoes, but their fissure vents and monogenetic volcanic fields (volcanic cones) have more powerful eruptions, as they are many times under extension. They are also steeper than shield volcanoes, with slopes of 30–35° compared to slopes of generally 5–10°, and their loose tephra are material for dangerous lahars.[8]Large pieces of tephra are called volcanic bombs.Big bombs can measure more than 4 feet(1.2 meters) across and weigh several tons.[9]

external image 220px-Etna_eruption_seen_from_the_International_Space_Station.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngEtna's 2002 eruption, photographed from the ISS.external image 220px-Indonesia%2C_Sunda_Straits.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngVolcanic activity at Anak Krakatau.external image 220px-MtCleveland_ISS013-E-24184.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngAsh plume from Cleveland Volcano (May 23, 2006), photographed by Jeffrey Williamsonboard the International Space Station.external image 220px-Nyiragongo_lava_lake.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngLava lake in the crater of Mount Nyiragongo.external image 220px-Arenallong.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngArenal in November 2006.

Famous Volcanoes :

[edit]Italy

[edit]Guatemala

[edit]Indonesia

[edit]United States

[edit]Ecuador

[edit]Mexico

[edit]Chile

[edit]Russia

[edit]Colombia

[edit]Other

[edit]Cinder cones

external image 220px-Puu_Oo_cropped.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngView at dusk of Pu'u 'O'o, June 1983.

[edit]Shield volcanoes

external image 220px-Erta-ale_lac-de-lave_2001.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngLava lake inside a pit crater at Erta Ale.external image 220px-Reunion_2004_1.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.png2004 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise.

[edit]Ecuador

[edit]United States

[edit]Other

[edit]Pyroclastic shields

[edit]Other

[edit]See also


Categories: Active volcanoes | Lists of volcanoes